Verrocchio: Christ and Thomas; Donatello and the Louis of Toulouse; Nanni di Banco Quattro Coronati for the Orsanmichele 3/3
We now walk to the Via dei Calzaiuoli where we look at the recess where a sculpture group of Verrocchio can now be seen, but where originally the holy Louis of Toulouse of Donatello stood.94 We will look at the real statue when we go to the Santa Croce when we cover sculpting. It is located in the museum to the right of the church near the Pazzi chapel. The Parta Guelfa commissioned Donatello to create the Louis of Toulouse, the patron saint of the Parta Guelfa.
|The Orsanmichele Via dei Calzaiuoli large size|
Photo: risotto al caviale
The recess of the Parta Guelfa in the Or San Michele was not just one of the fourteen recesses. This recess was situated on the busy street, the Via dei Calzaiuoli, which connects the church with the secular centre. Moreover, this middle recess covers the entire pillar in contrast to the other recess, except for the recess of the Arte dei Maestri. This means that this recess is twice as wide as the other recesses.
|Andrea del Verrocchio ‘Christ and Saint Thomas’ |
Backside Recess of the Parta Guelfa Top of the recess Original
The recess is clearly all’antica. Corinthian pilasters are accompanied by Ionic columns. The shell at the top in the recess is derived from classic sarcophagi. This is also true for the underside where two flying putti hold a wreath and curved faces can be seen at the corners.
|The predella recess of the Parta Guelfa large size Curved faces and the reed mats|
The recess is very similar to Brunelleschi’s architecture. It is quite possible that Brunelleschi advised his friend, Donatello, or that he designed his own.95 The combination of a pilaster and column can also be seen in the Baptistery. This also applies to the spirals at the shaft of the Ionic columns, which are based on the columns of the middle window on the three sides with doors of the Baptistery. The pilasters are reminiscent of those in Masaccio’s fresco of ‘the Trinity‘. At the bottom of the recess, just above the consoles, you see a kind of wickerwork. These are now reed mats. These were used to transport statues from the studio to the place they had to go. Such mats were placed under the statue to prevent damage.
Louis: bishop and beggar
Louis, the eldest son of the king of Naples and Sicily: Charles II, is influenced by the Franciscans. Louis joined a certain group of Franciscans who were quite extreme and later even banned. The Pope only allowed him to join the Franciscans if he accepted the diocese of Toulouse. During the short time he was a bishop, he walked around in ragged clothes and begged for alms, just like the monks of the Franciscans. He seriously considered giving up the episcopate. Lodewijk died young in 1297 at the age of twenty-three. Twenty years later he was canonized. In the second half of the fourteenth century Louis became the patron saint of the Parta Guelfa.
The bronze Louis of Toulouse
Donatello wanted to surpass Matthew’s statue of Matthew with his bronze Louis Ghiberti, which we have already seen. The height differs little, but Matthew’s height includes the base. This makes Louis’ statue look bigger. The total width of the pillar 4.5 braccia corresponds to the height of the statue. The statue itself is again half the total height of the whole recess.
|Donatello ‘Louis of Toulouse’ Head|
Button staff Gloves without hands
Unlike Matthew’s sculpture, Louis’ sculpture is completely gilded. According to Pope-Hennessy, this was one of the reasons why the sculpture was cast in eleven parts. The other reason is that he wanted to surpass Ghiberti’s Matthew.96 Ghiberti’s Matthew is a fairly static figure, although his right knee is slightly bent. Lodewijk is much more dynamic. Like Donatello’s Marcus, he was ‘caught’ at a moment in the movement. The right shoulder is slightly retracted and the left foot is forward. The head is turned slightly upward as if it were asking for divine support, and the right hand makes a blessing gesture. The idea of movement extends from the mantle to the albe underneath. You can imagine that just before this position the right hand was down and the left hand was just holding the cloak.97
The head is placed exactly between the architrave above the columns, isolating it as it were. The Louis is completely introverted, very different from the St. George we have just seen.
|Donatello ‘Louis of Toulouse’ detail large size|
The statue consists mainly of drapes, it is hollow, a body is missing except for a few protruding feet and a head. The different parts were fastened with bolts. Even the hands are invisible, instead there are only two pairs of gloves. Because there is no body present in this sculpture, Donatello had to make the drapery so that it looks as if it actually covers a body. Nowadays the statue is kept upright at the back by iron supports. Originally there were two parts of the drapery here so that the statue could stand on its own. Not only have the pieces of the robe disappeared, the top of the staff has also disappeared.
The Parta Guelfa clearly wanted a very special and expensive statue. A lot of attention has been paid to all kinds of details such as the decorative button of the staff. Here you can see six small and narrow recesses, three of which contain classical putti holding a shield. The mitre has inlays of enamel and glass stones that resemble precious stones.
From bronze to a gilded Louis
Of course the entire statue had to be gilded. Donatello was not cheap: instead of gold leaf, he used the so-called red powder. Such a powder is obtained by dissolving one part gold in seven parts mercury. This alloy is then brought to a temperature of 450 degrees, causing the mercury to evaporate and the gold to condense into red powder. This process is called ‘grinding gold’. The red powder is then sprinkled onto the bronze. Then, the bronze with the ground gold is again heated to 450 degrees Celsius in the oven. During the charcoal heating, a sulphuric acid is added to prevent oxidation. In the twelfth century it was known that gilded bronze was very resistant to weather influences, not an unnecessary luxury at the recess in the Orsanmichele for which the Calimala had intended this statue. The problem with gold plating is that the bronze can be easily deformed by the long-lasting heating. A piece was inserted in Louis’ left shoulder, probably due to the distortion that had occurred during the gilding process.
The fate of the statue and the criticism of the Louis
In the middle of the fifteenth century, Parta Guelfa sold its recess to Mercanzia. The statue of Louis moved to Santa Croce, where it was placed high in the facade above the central door. Today the statue can be seen in the refectory of the Santa Croce.
|Donatello ‘Louis of Toulouse’ refectory S. Croce large|
There was a lot of criticism on this statue by Donatello. Vasari, who knew the Louis only from the façade of the Franciscan church, the Santa Croce, commented as follows:
|‘Above the door of the Santa Croce one can still see a bronze statue completed by Donatello, a Louis the Saint of five cubits high; and when Donatello was accused of this being an awkward work and perhaps the least work he had ever made, he replied that he had intentionally made it so, because Louis the Saint had been so awkward to let his kingdom go for a monastery.’|
Giorgio Vasari, ‘The Lives of the Greatest Painters, Sculptors and Architects from Cimabue to Giorgione’, Contact, Amsterdam, 1990 part I, p. 201
Much of the criticism of the Louis of Toulouse is based on the period that the statue stood in the recess of the facade of the Santa Croce. The question arises as to whether this criticism is justified. After all, the statue is judged separately from its original recess, while the architecture and the statue are precisely attuned to one another by the maker (Restoration in the year 2012).
Nanni di Banco Eligius and the Quattro Coronati for the Orsanmichele
We now look at two of the three statues Nanni di Banco made for the Or San Michele, namely St Eligius (1408-1413) in the right corner pillar at Via dell’Arte della Lana and the four crowned saints (1414-1415) in Via Or San Michele. (To the left of the Quattro Coronati is Saint Philip also of Nanni di Banco).98
The first statue Nanni di Banco made was a French saint: Eligius. If you are standing in the Via dell’Art della Lana and see this statue of Eligius, you can probably guess what style is involved here. The excessively long body, the graceful but not very naturalistic posture and the way the folds fall are strongly reminiscent of the international style. The same style that Donatello applied to his ‘Prophet David‘ or Ghiberti to his first set of doors to the Baptistery.
|Nanni di Banco ‘Eligius’ replica Original|
St. Eligius is represented in a way that fits well with the biography of this saint. In the ‘Vita Eligii’ he is described as ‘long with a fresh complexion, his hair and beard have curls’. The mitre of the saint accentuates this description even more. Eligius was trained as a metal worker before he became a bishop. In the background of the recess you can see the tools for metalworkers. In the predella you can see the work by the members of the guild of blacksmiths, which had commissioned the statue of Eligius.
|Nanni di Banco Eligius predella big size|
The lady in the background with something resembling a fan is, on closer inspection, a devil in disguise.99 This dangerous woman is said to have visited him in his blacksmith’s shop, according to the story of St Eligius. Naturally she had nefarious plans, but our saint immediately identified the foul guest he had in front of him. With one of his hot pliers he grabbed her by the nose. These pliers can be seen three times, on the left in the recess. We now walk to the Via Orsanmichele where two more statues of Nanni di Banco can be seen. We limit ourselves to the four crowned saints.
Nanni di Banco Quattro Coronati
The four crowned saints were commissioned by the Maestri di Pietra e Legname, the guild of stone and woodworkers. The statues were probably carved between 1410 and 1412. The recesses with Eligius and the four crowned saints have the same style: in the pediment the Lord makes a blessing gesture and in the predellas the work of the guilds in question is depicted. The second figure from the left (seen from the viewer) in the recess also has clear features of the international style in terms of: posture, body proportions and the way in which the folds fall. Nanni di Banco places each saint exactly in front of a pilaster. This is reminiscent of the way in which statues were placed in front of columns in the Gothic style, as you can see in Chartres, for example.
|Chartres statues columns|
Despite these Gothic remains in the Quattro Coronati, it is a work that is directly reminiscent of classical sculptures and especially the portrait busts from the Republican era.100
|Classical influences and four heads|
The crowned saints in the recess are connected by a cloth behind them that is attached to the pilasters. The rhythm of the pleats gives a certain unity and partly returns in the gowns. The two figures on the right are carved from one block of marble.101 The saints are: Claudius, Castor, Symphorianus and Nicostratus, four Christian sculptors who were executed under Diocletian. These four martyrs were converted to Christianity. They preferred to die rather than carve a statue of the pagan Aesculapius for Emperor Diocletianus.
|Nanni di Banco Quattro Coronati rear Front|
Video Khan Quattro Coronati (3.21 minutes)
The scene on the predella is not a shallow relief as we have just seen at St. George of Donatello, but a deep relief. Here you can see the sculptors again, but now as Florentines practicing their profession. Each of them exercises a part of his profession such as masonry, carving out a twisted column, carving a capital and making a statue on the far right. The latter happens in a medieval way, but more about this later when Michelangelo is mentioned.
|Nanni di Banco predella with the stone workers and sculptors big size|
Vasari tells in his ‘Life about Nanni di Banco’ that he did not succeed in carving the four saints in such a way that they would fit in the recess:
|“In this recess are four saints made of marble, made by Nanni d’Antonio for the Guild of Carpenters, Joiners and Masons. It is said that when he had carved and finished one after the other and had built the recess, he could only with great difficulty put three [figures] in the recess, because he had modelled some figures with open arms. Because he was not very satisfied and quite desperate, he went to visit Donato [Donatello], and after he had told him of his bad luck and stupidity, Donato started laughing about the case and said: If you pay for a meal for me and for the boys in my studio, I’ll take the trouble to put those statues in the recess without any problems After agreeing, he sent him to Prato, where Donato himself had to go, to take some measures. When Nanni had left, Donato gathered his disciples, went to work and rounded off the shoulders of one statue and the arms of another, so that they gave each other space, and together he made it seem that one hand was placed on the shoulder of the other. And so he joined the whole together, and with his wise judgment he solved Nanni’s mistake, so that when they were embedded in the place, they showed clear signs of unity and brotherhood; and whosoever does not know of the affair, does not realise the fault”102|
A nice anecdote, but the story is not true.103 It does become clear, however, that working with several sculptures places new demands on a sculptor. Something Michelangelo did not succeed with his Pietà that he carved in front of his grave. Finally we look at a statue of Verrocchio. For this we have to go back to the busy shopping street: the Via dei Calzaiuoli.
Andrea del Verrocchio and his ‘Doubting Thomas and Christ’ for the Orsanmichele
The middle recess, on the Via Calzaiuoli, which we now stand in front of, has already been discussed. This is where the Louis of Toulouse, made by Donatello, stood until the mid-15th century. When the Parta Guelfa sells this recess and Louis moves to the facade of the Santa Croce, the Mercanzia (court for songs) orders Verrocchio to make a bronze sculpture group of Christ’s meeting with his unbelieving disciple Thomas.104
|Andrea del Verrocchio ‘Doubting Thomas and Christ‘ |
Back of the statue Head of Christ Large size
|Large Faces: Thomas Christ and Thomas|
At the feast of John on June 21, 1483, the figures were placed in the recess. Verrocchio received 957 florins for the two statues. The example of the Doubting Thomas was chosen for two reasons:
1. It was a fine example for good and just government and was therefore often depicted in courts and town
halls including the Palazzo Vecchio.
2. The Medici who took over Mercanzia at the time were especially interested in Thomas. It would be an
example of the good governance of the Medici.10
A recess that was made for one statue now gets two bronze statues. Verrocchio solves this in a daring and ingenious way. Of course the two statues had to be considerably smaller than the original statue for this recess: the Louis of Toulouse. Verrocchio did not place Christ and Thomas on the same level, of course Christ came to be higher than his apostle. Verrocchio makes the apostle stand out strongly, Thomas even partly sticks out of the recess, just like the raised hand of Christ. Vasari describes and interprets the attitude of Thomas and Christ in this way:
|“[…] for in Thomas, not only does one perceive his infidelity and his all too fierce desire to find an explanation for what he sees, but at the same time his love, which causes him to lay his hand on the side of Christ with a beautiful gesture; and in Christ Himself, who in a particularly generous posture raises an arm and opens his garment in order to remove the doubt of his disbelieving disciple, lies all that grace and (so to speak) divinity which art can give to a figure […].106|
The drapery is used in a way that will reach its peak in the Baroque era. The robes of the apostle and Christ are not only clothes that cover a body, but also become a bearer with a certain psychological charge. For example, Verrocchio divided the large folds in Thomas’ robe into smaller, capricious folds with sharp and angular lines, as if this underlines the state of mind of the doubting Thomas. Thomas had proclaimed loudly that he did not believe in the resurrection of Christ. Verrocchio shows Christ as he shows Thomas the wound he had suffered at the crucifixion.
It is only logical that the apostle will not have felt comfortable with this. If you look at the folds in the robe of Christ – long, simple and placed in a quiet rhythm – you can see how the artist also uses these folds to evoke certain emotions in the viewer.107 This is something you also see in the seventeenth century in statues by Bernini such as Ludovica or Saint Theresa. Christ and Thomas are depicted in a very naturalistic way, but in a way that depicts Mother Nature in a very aesthetic way. In this respect, Verrocchio fits well with the demands made on art in the Renaissance, as can be read in Alberti, among others. We will see that Donatello was much more idiosyncratic and especially in his two pulpits that we will see in the San Lorenzo. We now walk to the Baptistery. Here stands a tomb made by Donatello and Michelozzo.
|Bernini ‘Ludovica Albertoni’ in the San Francesca a Ripa, Rome large size|